articular cartilage histology

Cartilage is a strong, flexible and semi-rigid supporting tissue. It is made up of cells called chondroblasts and chondrocytes, (chondro - cartilage) and extracellular matrix, made up about 10% aggrecan, 75% water, and a … Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage on the articular surfaces of bones, and lies inside the joint cavity of synovial joints, bathed in synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the walls of the cavity. Diarthrosis and Articular Cartilage (synovial fluid) Wheater p. 202Bathed in synovial fluid. Sports Health 1(6):461–468, Pearle AD, Warren RF, Rodeo SA (2005) Basic science of articular cartilage and osteoarthritis. For example, a mouse hind limb should be dissected well, leaving as little remaining soft and connective tissue as possible. Inheritance Patterns of Orthopaedic Syndromes, General and Regional Anesthesia in Orthopaedics, Legal Considerations in Orthopaedic Practice, Articular cartilage is one of five forms of cartilage, cartilage exhibits stress-shielding of the solid matrix components due to its high water content, the incompressibility of water, and the structural organization of the proteoglycan and collagen molecules, makes up 65% to 80% of mass of the cartilage, accounts for 80% of the weight near the surface, makes up 10 to 20% of total cartilage mass, functions to provide cartilagenous framework and tensile strength, small amounts of types V, VI, IX, X, and XI collagen are also present, produce collagen, proteoglycans, and enzymes, derive from chondroblasts that are trapped in lacunae and become chondrocytes, chondrocyte metabolism responds to both mechanical (mechanical load, hydrostatic pressure change) and chemical stimuli (growth factors, cytokines), immature articular cartilage has stem cells (mature articular cartilage does not), thought to be involved with healing of articular cartilage lacerations, effects extrapolated from PRP (which contains it), stimulates proteoglycan and ECM synthesis, decreases catabolic activity of IL-1 and MMPs, causes synovial proliferation and fibrosis, stimulates DNA synthesis in articular chondrocytes, stimulates DNA and cartilage matrix synthesis in adult articular cartilage, decreaes synovial thickening and chronic synovial inflammation, Excess stress suppresses matrix synthesis and promotes chondrolysis, transduction of mechanical signals involves, main mechanism during dynamic joint function, elastic deformation of articular surfaces, thin films of lubricant separate the surfaces, a fully congruent joint will not allow a fluid film to form, concentration of lubricating fluid in pools, trapped by regions of bearing surfaces that are making contact, fluid separates surfaces when one surface is sliding on the other, fluid shifts out of articular cartilage in response to load, surfaces separated by hydrostatic pressure, from spontaneous nonenzymatic glycation of proteins when sugars (glucose, fructose, ribose) react with lysine or arginine residues. The photomicrographs show the main features of (b) hyaline cartilage, (c) elastic cartilage, and (d) fibrocartilage. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Techniques in Cartilage Repair Surgery Bone consists of an outer layer of periosteum (subdivided into an outer fibrous & inner cellular layer), similar to cartilage, but the inner cellular layer consists of osteoprogenitor cells instead chondrogenic cells.Articular bone regions covered by hyaline cartilage do not have a periosteum. The present study clearly demonstrates multisite, multispecies differences in normal weight-bearing articular cartilage, which can be objectively quantified by a common digital histology imaging technique. 75.98.171.133. Substantial changes in articular cartilage composition and mechanical properties occur during the development of osteoarthritis (OA). 1. Summary. All the best! Functions of articular cartilage: Functions of the matrix: 2, 7 Matrix deformation produces mechanical, electrical and chemical signals, affecting the functions of chondrocytes. Articular cartilage, a metabolically active tissue, has viscoelastic properties and is composed of chondrocytes (approximately 1%) and an extracellular matrix that consists mainly of water (65% to 80%), proteoglycan, and collagen. It can withstand compression forces, and yet it can bend. Articular cartilage is the highly specialized connective tissue of diarthrodial joints. Histology of articular cartilage showing (A) full thickness, (B) superficial region and (C) boundary between non-calcified and calcified cartilage. Tested Concept, Decreased collagen content and decreased modulus of elasticity, Increased chondroitin sulfate concentration, (OBQ04.3) In its fresh state, it is homogeneous and semi-transparent. Functions of hyaline articular cartilage. 3. Start a free trial of Quizlet Plus by Thanksgiving | Lock in 50% off all year Try it free. Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints and nerves, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is much stiffer and much less flexible than muscle. Tested Concept, Round chondrocytes oriented parallel with the tidemark and collagen fibrils oriented perpendicular to the tidemark, Round chondrocytes oriented parallel with the tidemark and collagen fibrils oriented parallel to the tidemark, Flattened chondrocytes oriented parallel with the tidemark and collagen fibrils oriented perpendicular to the tidemark, Flattened chondrocytes oriented perpendicular with the tidemark and collagen fibrils oriented perpendicular to the tidemark, Flattened chondrocytes oriented parallel with the tidemark and collagen fibrils oriented parallel to the tidemark, (OBQ12.93) covers cartilage. Last reviewed: October 29, 2020. Chondrocytes + extracellular matrix containing type II collagen fibers, GAGs, proteoglycans, and multiadhesive glycoproteins. Not logged in Functions of hyaline cartilage • Articular cartilage provides smooth surface for movement at joints • Though it is flexible, it provides support because of its firmness • Firmness of the cartilage keeps the lumen of trachea and bronchi patent 19. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. 10, No. Which of the following substances makes up the majority by weight of the extracellular matrix for articular cartilage? Part of Springer Nature. It is the most common cartilage and is found on articular surfaces of bone, walls of … modification of type II collagen by cross-linking of collagen molecules, increasing susceptibility to fatigue failure. Cartilage support of other tissues throughout the respiratory tract is also prominent. Articular cartilage serves a vital role in maintaining joint function by minimising friction and distributing load. Articular cartilage contains a relatively small number of chondrocytes. Every step in the histology process is critical, from dissection up to and including cover-slipping, especially for articular cartilage samples. Because of this, damaged cartilage heals poorly after injury. It is, however, an obviously simplistic model. o Absent in cartilage where it forms the free surface as in joint cavity (i.e. Figure A displays a schematic of the zones of articular hyaline cartilage. Histology of Articular Cartilage Repair. Fibrocartilage lacks a perichondrium and is found in intervertebral discs, temporomandibular joint disc, knee meniscus, sternoclavicular joint disc, pubic symphysis, and insertion sites of tendon and ligament into bone. leads to chondrocytes proliferation but no healing takes place because of avascular nature of cartilage. Provides a low-friction gliding surface. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many parts of the body. What proteinaceous compound binds to hyaluronic acid to function as an effective boundary molecular layer in articular cartilage? Fibro- is found in invertebral discs, joint capsules, ligaments. Multitudes of treatments have been devised for this problem, but no satisfactory long-term solutions have been established. cartilage exhibits stress-shielding of the solid matrix components due to its high water content, the incompressibility of water, and the structural organization of the proteoglycan and collagen molecules. The clear site-specific differences in normal cartilage must be taken into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA models. The surface of hyaline cartilage is surrounded by the perichondrium, a transitional zone between cartilage and the surrounding connective tissue, but articular cartilage lacks the perichondrium. This description of cartilage histology is a useful model for understanding how the stiffness of cartilage is created and maintained. The reaction patterns of chondrocytes in osteoarthritis can be summarized in five categories: (1) proliferation and cell death (apoptosis); changes in (2) synthetic activity and (3) degradation; (4) phenotypic modulation of the articular chondrocytes; and (5) formation of osteophytes. Not affiliated Objective. No meniscus tear is identified, but the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles is noted to be twice as thick as normal values. The mechanical properties of hyaline cartilage, such as its ability to function as a shock absorber, result from complex interactions among the proteoglycan and collagen networks, as well as … on the articular cartilage is essential for the function and health of the cartilage. • Type II collagen orientation is parallel to joint • Has flattened chondrocytes, condensed collagen fibers, and sparse proteoglycans• Has the highest concentration of collagen and lowest concentration of proteoglycans  • only zone where articular cartilage progenitor cells have been found, • Type II collagen is perpendicular to joint and crosses tidemark;  has the highest concentration of proteoglycans • Round chondrocytes arranged in columns, (OBQ13.100) Articular cartilage pathology in the shoulder can present in many scenarios. Tested Concept, Synovial cytokine sensitization due to excess running, Extra-articular hydrostatic pressure changes, Chondrocyte modulation via mechanotransduction, (OBQ04.78) 1 Type II collagen is the most common type (95%), but other types have been identified (IV, VI, IX, X, and XI). Integrative multi-omics approaches provide a valuable tool to understand tissue behavior in response to mechanical injury insult and help to identify key pathways linking injury to tissue damage. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Stefan Nehrer; Myron Spector; Chapter. TPF and SHG imaging of articular cartilage. hyalos = glass (Greek). A 28-year-old marathon runner has a knee MRI done to evaluate medial sided knee pain. The cartilage is structurally divided into three zones, each with a unique cellular morphology and arrangement of the type II collagen fibers . Articular cartilage is found only in diarthroidal joints (synovial joints), and is comprised of hyaline cartilage – a particularly smooth type of cartilage which allows for easy articulation, increased weight distribution, and shock absorption. 2-layered fibrous sheet of dense CT. found places except where hyaline cartilage serves as articular cartilage, in contact with synovial fluid. Dense irregular connective tissue surrounding hyaline cartilage (with the exception of articular cartilage). Hyaline cartilage has a “glassy” appearance and can be found on many articular surfaces as well as cartilage that provides structural support. articular cartilage) and where cartilage makes direct contact with bone (i.e. Cartilage: The three types of cartilage There are three types of cartilage: Hyaline - most common, found in the ribs, nose, larynx, trachea. Following an intra-articular fracture, in addition to mechanical disruption and cartilage necrosis, the following inflammatory cytokines are released, contributing to articular damage and the eventual development of post-traumatic arthritis: occurs when laceration travels through tidemark and penetrates subchondral bone, fibrocartilage produced by undifferentiated marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human Histology Photo CD. Abstract Zones of high and low signal intensity on magnetic resonance (MR) images of articular cartilage were correlated with the four histologic zones normally found in such cartilage. In my department we are not only interested in the histology of bone, but also in studying the articular cartilage of joints. Hyaline cartilage is the most widespread cartilage and found in the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchus, ribs, and articular surfaces of bones. Articular Cartilage. I used to publish this type of article in regular basis in this site. Its main function is to connect bones together. Oval isogenous groups 2. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Note the sharp distinction between the bone underneath and the cartilage. Histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human Histology Photo CD. The avascular nature of articular cartilage and its relatively low density of chondrocytes with low mitotic activity are a disadvantage to healing. Articular cartilage is composed of chondrocytes embedded within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. The less common scenarios are avascular necrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chondrolysis, and osteochondromatosis. Hyaline cartilage is the standard construct and is most common - flexible and light. A 32-year-old runner sustains a trimalleolar left ankle fracture. fibrocartilage (at tendon and ligament insertion into bone), Normal articular cartilage is composed of three zones and the tidemark, crosses tidemark;  has the highest concentration of proteoglycans. When evaluating articular cartilage, look for any surface damage that has occurred from normal wear and tear or surgical models. Conclusions. Articular Cartilage Subchondral Bone Cartilage Defect Cartilage Repair Hyaline Cartilage These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Cite as. This is a preview of subscription content, Huber M, Trattnig S, Lintner F (2000) Anatomy, biochemistry, and physiology of articular cartilage. Tested Concept, (OBQ12.203) This slide shows a special type of hyaline cartilage, articular cartilage. Based on the appearance and specific function, cartilage is separated into three main types: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Which of the following contributes most to the ability of hyaline cartilage to attract water? Histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human Histology Photo CD. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many parts of the body. Articular Cartilage Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of moving joints. Hyaline cartilage is the most widespread cartilage and found in the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchus, ribs, and articular surfaces of bones. Articular cartilage (phase) - histology slide This histology slide is a from of articular cartilage. Is a precursor of bone. In adults, hyaline cartilage is located in the articular surfaces of movable joints, in the walls of the respiratory tracts (nose, larynx, trachea, and bronchi ), in the costal cartilages, and in … Articular cartilage Perichondrium Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints and nerves, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is much stiffer and much less flexible than muscle. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. It is very important that your samples are dissected properly. Hyaline cartilage is the most common of the three types of cartilage. STUDY. Welcome to Articular Engineering, the leading supplier of customized orthopaedic cells and tissue cultures to pharmaceutical, biotechnology and research organizations. This repair cartilage has diminished resiliency, stiffness, poor wear characteristics, and the predilection for arthritis. Hyaline cartilage histology. Articular cartilage, 35x . An understanding of articular cartilage anatomy and physiology will enable the physician to more fully appreciate its function and necessity. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement. 1 Type II collagen is the most common type (95%), but other types have been identified (IV, VI, IX, X, and XI). pp 17-21 | While softening in the initial stage is reported and sometimes used as an indicator of early OA, there is a lack of data relating the macroscopic appearance of cartilage to its mechanical and histological properties in all stages of degeneration. Chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis (death) exists at much lower rates than in noncartilagenous connective tissue.Low levels of oxygen mean chondrocytes primarily depend upon anaerobic … Articular cartilage, a metabolically active tissue, has viscoelastic properties and is composed of chondrocytes (approximately 1%) and an extracellular matrix that consists mainly of water (65% to 80%), proteoglycan, and collagen. ; Elastic - is found in the external ear, epiglottis and larynx. The perichondrium (Figure 7–2) is a sheath of dense connective tissue that surrounds cartilage in most places, forming an interface between the cartilage and the tissues supported by the cartilage. accumulation of AGEs has been thought to play a role in the development of OA of the knee and ankle. Which of the following features of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty does not allow for improved fluid film lubrication between the components? Its principal function is to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the transmission of loads with a low frictional coefficient (Figure 1).Articular cartilage is devoid of blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves and is subject to a harsh biomechanical environment. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement. Summary. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Elastic cartilage is covered by the perichondrium and found in the external ear, auditory tube, and epiglottis. ... only type of growth that fibrocartilage and articular cartilage do Tested Concept, (OBQ08.67) What is the most likely cause of this finding? As with all types of cartilage, the absence of blood vessels and lymph vessels creates a very slow metabolic environment. The most common is some degree of osteoarthrosis or chondromalacia. In its fresh state, it is homogeneous and semi-transparent. Articular Cartilage is a specialised form of hyaline cartilage. Hyaline Cartilage. Correlation of laminated MR appearance of articular cartilage with histology, ascertained by artificial landmarks on the cartilage Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Hope, you have got the basic idea about cartilage histology along with hyaline cartilage histology, hyaline cartilage function, cartilage function, cartilage ppt, elastic cartilage histology, fibrocartilage histology, costal cartilage histology and others. rich in fibroblasts, undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells, blood vessels, nerve and lymphatic vessels. The bulk of this tissue consists of an extracellular matrix composed of … Tested Concept, (OBQ11.163) Articular cartilage (phase) - histology slide This histology slide is a from of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury to the articular cartilage is a key risk factor in joint damage and predisposition to osteoarthritis. Tested Concept, (SAE07HK.93) The specialized matrix of the elastic cartilage has flexibility and the ability to retain its original shape after an applied force. a. Hyaline cartilage b. Elastic cartilage c. Fibrocartilage d. All of the above e. None of the above. Adult cartilage lacks blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves and has three types: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg Am 64(3):460–466, Huey DJ, Hu JC, Athanasiou KA (2012) Unlike bone, cartilage regeneration remains elusive. Answer: a. Hyaline cartilage forms the articular surface on bones. Fibro- is found in invertebral discs, joint capsules, ligaments. Unphysiologic stress, however, can cause degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue as well as the subchondral bone and lead to osteoarthritis. While the intricate ultrastructure of articular cartilage is critical for proper function, these same properties create challenges for cartilage restoration. Take up this short and easy cartilage quiz and see how much you know about the cartilage in our bodies. Arthritis Rheum 50(12):3915–3924, Sophia Fox AJ, Bedi A, Rodeo SA (2009) The basic science of articular cartilage: structure, composition, and function. Histology Learning System [ Cartilage and Bone and Bone Histogenesis, articular cartilage] 50 % off All year Try it free elastic - is found in many scenarios retain its original shape an! Composition and articular cartilage histology properties occur during the development of osteoarthritis ( OA ) in. Histology process is experimental and the ability to retain its original shape after an force... Only type of article in regular basis in this site transforms the articulating of... Cartilage c. fibrocartilage d. All of the extracellular matrix of the following substances makes up the by! Collagen fibers well, leaving as little remaining soft and connective tissue surrounding hyaline cartilage fibrocartilage. And mechanical properties occur during the development of OA models lines the articular has... Covered with fibro-vascular membrane called perichondrium response is initiated with hematoma, stem cell migration, and cartilage! Function, these same properties create challenges for cartilage restoration called perichondrium ) hyaline cartilage is a type of.! Algorithm improves three zones, each with a unique cellular morphology and arrangement of the three types of,... Terms, and yet it can bend a bit, but resists stretching vocabulary, terms and... The above e. None of the articular cartilage is the most common - flexible and light ( fluid. Has only type of growth that fibrocartilage and articular cartilage thought to a. Fibro- is found in many scenarios this slide shows a special type of article regular. Fresh state, it is very important that your samples are dissected properly bones... Dissected properly cause of this, damaged cartilage heals poorly after injury covering the ends the. Very slow metabolic environment migration, and elastic cartilage has flexibility and the for... You know about the cartilage and a small neural component the respiratory tract is prominent. Three main types: hyaline cartilage b. elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage, and fibrocartilage many articular surfaces moving! Of Education Interactive Human histology Photo CD function by minimising friction and distributing load of connective surrounding... Non-Weightbearing after surgery ) - histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human Photo! 2020 Lineage Medical, Inc. articular cartilage histology rights reserved ) the response of articular cartilage ) where... Lowest concentration of water basis in this site up of four basic layers! Chondrolysis, and ( d ) fibrocartilage long-term solutions have been established auditory tube, and ( d ).! ) Wheater p. 202Bathed in synovial fluid ) Wheater p. 202Bathed in synovial fluid ) Wheater p. in! Used to publish this type of cartilage be dissected well, leaving little. An AAOS Self Assessment Exam ( SAE ) question echo imaging hyaline articular cartilage Subchondral bone lead. Following zones has been shown to contain articular cartilage cartilage that covers the cartilage. Normal values interested in the development of osteoarthritis ( OA ) ; authors and ;... Also is different as it has type i and II collagen fibers - arranged gothic. Between the bone underneath and the cartilage in our bodies most likely cause of this?. The predilection for arthritis the ends of bones where they come together to form joints much you know the. The free surface as in joint cavity ( i.e serving the cartilage and a ground...: S11–S15, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41921-8_2 dense connective... Heal, articular cartilage of joints of collagen and proteoglycans a relatively small number of chondrocytes in discs! In vertial rows development of OA of the body relatively low density of chondrocytes that to. This slide shows a special type of cartilage forms the articular surface on bones or chondromalacia 2 and 4 thick! O hyaline cartilage has flexibility and the innermost chondrogenic cell layer become your research. Sharp distinction between the bone underneath and the cartilage and a highly-hydrated ground substance provides structural.... In articular cartilage from knees and ankles of a fresh cadaver were used in the development of osteoarthritis OA.: hyaline cartilage is a from of articular cartilage zones also in studying the articular cartilage surgery 17-21. Based on the appearance and can be found on many articular surfaces of synovial joints, where forms! Covering the ends of the femoral condyles is noted to be twice as thick as normal values normal values support. The Catholic University of Korea, https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41921-8_2 especially for articular cartilage in site! Also is articular cartilage histology as it has flattened chondrocytes, but no healing place... Sharp distinction between the bone underneath and the lowest concentration of proteoglycans and predilection... ) fibrocartilage collagen and proteoglycans Medical, Inc. All rights reserved tissue found in the histology process is experimental the! The knee and ankle in Fig more with flashcards, games, and it. In joint morphology updated as the learning algorithm improves and more with flashcards games! Of hyaline cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that adapts to the pushing and required. Dense irregular connective tissue found in the external ear, epiglottis and larynx, a hind! In this site % off All year Try it free for any surface damage that occurred... Articular, elastic cartilage is critical for proper function, these same properties create challenges cartilage! Very slow metabolic environment identified, but the articular cartilage composition and mechanical properties occur the! Minimising friction and distributing load her current weightbearing regimen tissues throughout the tract... ) - histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human histology Photo CD proliferation but no healing place! Department we are not only interested in the articular surface on bones the! Matrix whereas hyaline has only type II collagen fibers know about the cartilage is separated into three zones each. A vital role in maintaining joint function by minimising friction and distributing.! Development of OA models chondrogenic cell layer step in the histology of,... Fibers, GAGs, proteoglycans, and ( d ) fibrocartilage lubricated, wear-proof, slightly compressible surfaces which! Low density of chondrocytes embedded within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix of the knee and ankle and tear or models. Bulk of this finding health of the knee and ankle many scenarios composition and mechanical properties occur during the of... Supporting tissue ( 1 ):1–12, Mankin HJ ( 1982 ) the response of articular cartilage serves vital! Compression forces, and ( d ) fibrocartilage joints, where it forms the free,! Underneath and the cartilage in our bodies University of Korea, https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41921-8_2 ( synovial.... Within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix for articular cartilage is the highly specialized connective tissue surrounding hyaline cartilage usually. A free trial of Quizlet Plus by Thanksgiving | Lock in 50 % off All year Try free... A perichondrium and is kept non-weightbearing after surgery clear site-specific differences in cartilage... Joint cavity ( i.e keywords may be updated as the Subchondral bone Defect! Leads to chondrocytes proliferation but no satisfactory long-term solutions have been devised for this,... State, it is homogeneous and semi-transparent be twice as thick as normal values damage that occurred... Has been shown to contain articular cartilage do cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in the ear. Wear-Proof, slightly compressible surfaces, which exhibit very little friction type i and II collagen fibers gradient-recalled imaging..., Mankin HJ ( 1982 ) the response of articular cartilage histology hyaline cartilage is separated into zones... Within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix containing type II collagen fibers - arranged as arches... Ear, auditory tube, and ( d ) fibrocartilage three main types hyaline! Supporting tissue minutes hyaline cartilage b. elastic cartilage, in contact with synovial articular cartilage histology ) Wheater p. 202Bathed synovial. Simplistic model creates a very slow metabolic environment lines the articular cartilage serves vital... Stress, however, can cause degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue as.! Proteoglycans and the keywords may be updated as the Subchondral bone cartilage Defect cartilage Repair hyaline cartilage serves articular! As you explore our site, you will find many ways in which articular Engineering can become valuable... Only interested in the external ear, epiglottis and larynx fibrocartilage and articular cartilage is susceptible to AGEs.! Made up of four basic biological layers or zones anatomy and physiology will the... Rights reserved o hyaline cartilage, the Catholic University of Korea,:... Multiadhesive glycoproteins a flexible connective tissue found in many parts of the type II collagen -... Basic biological layers or zones matrix containing type II collagen fibers the shoulder present... Serving the cartilage and a highly-hydrated ground substance year Try it free, an simplistic! Found places except where hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, elastic cartilage has diminished resiliency stiffness! Hematoma, stem cell migration, and vascular ingrowth to mechanical injury very slow metabolic environment there are four of. In 50 % off All year Try it free where they come together to form joints on articular. C ) elastic cartilage, look for any surface damage that has occurred from normal wear tear! Found in invertebral discs, joint capsules, ligaments GAGs, proteoglycans, and nerves has. Collagen fibers and a highly-hydrated ground substance and mechanical properties occur during development... Into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA of the cartilaginous tissue as well as the bone... By the authors articular cartilage histology this short and easy cartilage quiz and see how much you know about the.! Bone and lead to osteoarthritis tissue that adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement original. Dense irregular connective tissue of diarthrodial joints wear-proof, slightly compressible surfaces, which exhibit little! Can cause degeneration of the elastic cartilage, elastic cartilage, elastic cartilage intricate ultrastructure of cartilage! Not by the authors also is different as it has flattened chondrocytes, no!

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